Table of Contents
1. Welding Background.
The Importance of Welding.
Welding Joins All Metals.
Historical Development of Welding.
The Welding Industry.
The Future of Welding.
2. Fundamentals of Welding.
Welding Processes and Grouping.
Methods of Applying Welding.
Welding Physics and Chemistry.
3. Welding Personnel, Training, and Certification.
The Work of the Welder.
The Job Outlook for Welders.
Where Welders Work.
Training Programs and Schools.
Qualifying and Certifying Welding Personnel.
4. Safety and Health of Welders.
Personnel Protection and Safety Rules.
Electric Shock Hazard.
Arc Radiation Hazard.
Air Contamination Hazard.
Fire and Explosion Hazard.
Compressed Gases Hazard.
Weld Cleaning and Other Hazards.
Safety for Specific Welding Processes and Occupations.
5. Arc Welding With a Nonconsumable Electrode.
The Nonconsumable Welding Arc.
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
Plasma Arc Welding.
Carbon Arc Welding.
Other Nonconsumable Arc Welding Processes.
6. Arc Welding with a Consumable Electrode.
The Consumable Welding Arc.
Metal Transfer Across the Arc.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding.
Gas Metal Arc Welding.
Flux-Cored Arc Welding.
Submerged Arc Welding.
Other Consumable Electrode Welding Processes.
Art Welding Variables.
Arc Welding Process Selection.
7. Gas Welding, Brazing, Soldering, and Solid-State Welding.
Oxyfuel Gas Welding.
Miscellaneous Welding Processes.
8. Resistance, Electron Beam, and Laser Beam Welding and Cutting.
Electron Beam Welding.
Laser Beam Welding.
High Energy Beam Cutting.
9. Welding-Related Processes.
Arc and Plasma Cutting.
Water Jet Cutting.
Automatic Shape Cutting.
Joining Composites and Ceramics.
Preheat and Postheat Treatment.
Mechanical Stress Relief.
10. Power Sources for Arc Welding.
Arc Welding Electricity.
Welding Arc Requirements.
Types of Welding Machines.
Rotating Welding Machines.
Transformer Welding Machines.
Rectifier Welding Machines.
Inverter Welding Machines.
Selecting and Specifying a Power Source.
Installing and Maintaining a Power Source.
11. Other Welding Equipment.
Arc Welding Guns and Torches.
Electrode Feed Systems.
Welding Cables and Clamps.
Auxiliary Welding Equipment.
12. Mechanized, Automated, and Robotic Arc Welding.
Automation of Welding.
Arc Motion Devices.
Standardized Automatic Arc Welding Machines.
Dedicated Automatic Arc Welding Equipment.
Flexible Automation of Welding.
Arc Welding Robots.
Controls for Automatic Arc Welding.
Sensors and Adaptive Control.
Tooling and Fixtures.
13. Electrodes and Filler Materials.
Types of Welding Consumables.
Solid Electrode Wires.
Cored Electrode Wires.
Packaging of Electrode Wires.
Other Welding Materials.
14. Gases Used in Welding.
Fuel Gases for Welding and Cutting.
Gas Containers and Apparatuses.
15. Metals and Their Weldability.
Properties of Metals.
Metal Specifications and Steel Classifications.
Identification of Metals.
Heat and Welding.
Weldability of Metals.
16. Welding Steels.
Welding Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels.
Welding Alloy Steels.
Welding Stainless Steels.
Welding Ultrahigh-Strength Steels.
17. Welding Nonferrous Metals.
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.
Copper and Copper-Base Alloys.
Reactive and Refractory Metals.
Other Nonferrous Metals.
18. Welding Special and Dissimilar Metals.
Cast Iron and Other Irons.
19. Design for Welding.
Advantage of Welded Construction.
Weldment Design Factors.
Welding Positions and Weld Accessibility.
Design of Weld Joints and Welds.
Influence of Specifications on Design.
Design Conversion to Weldments.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD).
Weldment Redesign to Reduce Cost.
20. Cost of Welding.
Weldment Cost Elements.
Weld Metal Required for Joints.
Filler Metal and Materials Required.
Time and Labor Required.
Power and Overhead Costs.
Weld Cost Formulas and Examples.
21. Quality Control and Evaluation of Welds.
Quality Control Program.
Corrective Actions for Weld Effects.
Workmanship Specimens and Standards.
Nondestructive Examination Symbols.
22. Welding Specifications, Procedures, and Qualifications.
Welding Costs and Specifications.
Welding Procedures and Qualifying Them.
Standard Welding Procedure Specifications (SWPS).
Qualifying and Certifying Welders.
23. Welding Problems and Solutions.
Welding Distortion and Warpage.
Heat Forming and Straightening.
Weld Stresses and Cracking.
24. Failure Analysis, Repair Welding, and Surfacing.
Weld Failure Analysis.
Developing a Rework Procedure.
Making the Repair Weld.
Rebuilding and Overlay Welding.
Surfacing for Wear Resistance.
Surfacing for Corrosion Resistance.
Other Surface Applications.
25. Welding Pipe and Tubing.
Pipe and Tube Welding.
Manual and Semiautomatic Pipe Welding.
Mechanized Pipe and Tube Welding.
Automated Pipe Welding.
Tube to Sheet Welding.
26. Special Welding Applications.
Arc Spot Welding.
Sheet Metal Welding.
Narrow Gap Welding.
Welding in Space.